- Home Page Archive #24 -
"Heavier-than-air flying machines are impossible." Lord Kelvin, 1895

In order to provide for a reasonable homepage loading time, it is impractical to just keep adding items to the top of the stack and keep all the old stuff there too. Therefore, I have created these Airplanes and Rockets Homepage Archives to maintain a historical snapshot of everything once on the homepage. Unfortunately, I did not think to keep a record until around Fall of 2009; I had just been deleting items from the bottom of the stack. No more, though. Hence forth, if you recall seeing something on the homepage but it is no longer there, please check out these archive pages. I also keep an archive of all the modeling news additions:

Homepage Additions Archive:

| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 |
| 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35 | 36 | 37 |
| 38 | 39 |

Modeling News Archive:

| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 |

The Aircraft Radio Serviceman

The Aircraft Radio Serviceman (Piper Cub), April 1946 Radio News - RF CafeAircraft electronics has always been on the bleeding edge of technology because of the ever-increasing need to fly in the widest range of atmospheric conditions possible. Accordingly, skills needed by avionics servicemen are amongst the highest required in any electronics field. There are still many pieces of vintage equipment in service that need to be maintained, but even 20- to 30-year-old airborne radars and navigational units require top-notch techs to troubleshoot and align. One topic in particular that plagues electronics operation even in modern airframes is that of static electricity build-up and lightning strikes. We all face those kinds of static discharge hazards in non-aviation environment, but for the most part a failure on the ground or water is not as imminently

Southern Senior High School
Class of 1976 Yearbook

Southern Senior High School Class of 1976 Yearbook Photos - Airplanes and RocketsThese images were scanned from my 1976 yearbook for Southern Senior High School in Harwood, Maryland. Only pages with information on Seniors is included. Birthdates have been covered over, but everything else remains. Please let me know if you would like your picture and/or information removed. On the other hand, if you would like to send additional information for posting or would like me to send you the full-resolution scan of your page, then please send me an e-mail. A full list of all the names that go with these photos can be found at the bottom of this page. Having them in text format (versus a photo) will allow search engines to find your name and associate it with Southern Senior High School. Oh, and yes, all the photos are in

Adding Scale Detail to Your B-24
Bomber Flying Model

Adding Scale Detail to Your B-24 Bomber Flying Scale Model, September 1954 Air Trails - Airplanes and RocketsThis is part two of a control line B-24 Liberator article that appeared in two 1954 issues of Air Trails magazine. Part one covered construction of the model and had the framework plans. Part two, here has plans and instructions for adding lots of good detail to the model if so desired. Paint, special markings, guns and turrets, pilot, and airframe and cockpit drawings make the job easier. It is hard to believe that as I write this, the article was published nearly 60 years ago

San Francisco's Busy Boatmen

San Francisco's Busy Boatmen, September 1954 Air Trails - Airplanes and RocketsThe craftsmanship skill level exhibited by many of the early model boat builders is amazing, but then so is that of model airplane, model train, and model car builders. Scale model rocket builders have had it relatively easy because typically other than a faithful reproduction of a paint job, there is very little in the way of external ornamentation or functional gadgetry to replicate. The number of hours required to turn out even a fairly simple wooden-hulled sailboat or tugboat is a lot more than most modelers would be willing to dedicate to a single project. As with so many other models that appear in these vintage magazines, I wonder where these models are today. How many have survived the ravages of time, household

R/C Notes

R/C Notes, January 1956 Popular Electronics - Airplanes and RocketsWhen Popular Electronics began publication in October of 1954, its editors included both radio control modeling and amateur radio as regular features. The magazine's target audience was made up of professional, student, and hobbyist electronics aficionados who often mixed their interest in electronics with another hobby; e.g., the aforementioned R/C and Ham radio, but also counted amongst readers were audiophiles looking for top-notch systems, do-it-yourselfer (DIY) domestic gadget makers, and automotive enthusiasts. It might seem like today there is not as much interest in such endeavors  as in times past, but the plethora of hobby type magazines still being published in hard copy, electronically,

Italian Macchi "Saetta" Fighter

Italian Macchi "Saetta" Fighter, September 1954 Air Trails - Airplanes and RocketsWalter Musciano designed and built this fine control line version of the Italian Macchi "Saetta" Fighter that can be configured either as the C-200 or the C-202 version. At a scale of 3/4":1', the wingspan came out at 36", and a Fox .29 inverted-mounted engine was used. Italy never was a big producer of aircraft in either of the world wars, but the Saetta (Google translates it to "lightning" or "arrow") did its part in helping the Allies achieve air superiority over its country's skies and in North Africa. As with nearly models of the era, construction is on the rugged side in order to withstand constant impulses from the internal combustion engine. If you elect to build the Saetta and use electric power, some weight can be saved by selecting

Therapeutic Horse Riding
Mounting Ramp

Therapeutic Horse Riding Mounting Platform & Ramp (Ride Above Disability Therapeutic Riding Center) - Airplanes and RocketsNote received from Mr. Wayne Jackson (January 2015) "Kirt, Here is your ramp slightly modified. We made the deck height 33" vice 29", widened it by six inches, omitted some of the hand rails, added offside steps, and reversed it so that the student mount the horse from the left side. It was easy to build and your plans are amazing. Thank you so much. Yours in Service, Wayne T. Jackson, Executive Director Ride Above Disability Therapeutic Riding Center.

Royal Marine Amphibious
Twin Engine R/C Airplane

Royal Marine (May 1970 American Aircraft Modeler) - Airplanes and RocketsAirplanes and Rockets website visitor Jeff A. wrote to ask that I scan and post this constructions article for the Royal Marine twin-engine amphibious model from the May 1970 edition of American Aircraft Modeler. I was glad to oblige. The aircraft's designer, builder, and article's author, Mr. Yuji Oki does not exaggerate when he claims that the Royal Marine is "The world's most beautiful flying boat." Sure he might be a bit prejudiced in his assessment, but there's no denying the ship's attractiveness. Undertaking the building of this model is no yeoman's task, if I may appropriately borrow from seaman's terms. The plans are a work of art in themselves. Hopefully, Jeff will send a photo or two of his Royal Marine

Dolly Wischer's "Yeti" Radio
Controlled Pilatus Porter

Dolly Wischer's "Yeti" Radio Controlled Pilatus Porter from September/October 1963 American Modeler Magazine - Airplanes and RocketsThe Pilatus Porter, manufactured in Switzerland, is now just a part of Pilatus' considerably expanded product line. Since its original STOL flying machine, the company now makes business jets and military trainers. Various iterations of the Porter are seen at scale model contests worldwide, and there are multiple kits and ARF versions available for free flight, control line, and radio control. What makes this particular Pilatus Porter noteworthy is its builder and pilot, Mrs. Dolly Wischer, who appeared with it in an article in a 1963 edition of American Modeler magazine. She researched the design, drew the plans, built the airplane, and flew it with one of the earlier proportional radio control systems. Its 68" wingspan and a wing loading

Antique Coat Rack
Refinishing Project

Antique Coat Tree Restoration - Airplanes and RocketsFor as long as both Melanie and I can remember this old coat tree has been standing in her parent's house - first in Hagerstown, Maryland, then in two locations in West Virginia, and finally back in Hagerstown, Maryland. After her mother moved into a senior care home, we 'inherited' it, which was great for me because, being obviously old, I really liked it. As you can see from the 'before' picture, it was in pretty rough shape and having been heavily used for who knows how many decades? Any glue that might have been used had long since disintegrated, and the finish was heavily worn. A few small nails held everything together in a very wobbly manner. It probably started out life in York, Pennsylvania. from whence her parents both harkened

Cox F2U-1 Corsair
Control Line Model

Cox F2G-1 Corsair C/L Airplane - Airplanes and RocketsThe Cox F2U-1 Corsair was one of the first control line models I owned as a kid back in Holly Hill Harbor, Maryland. It has a break-away wing that is held on with rubber bands, but that was not enough to save it from the same demise at least one other Cox model had experienced prior to that: unrepairable damage after one or two utterly uncontrolled laps around the circle. My mistaken method for attempting to fly the airplane was to hold up elevator to keep it from hitting the ground, except I would keep holding up elevator until the model eventually did a wingover into terra firma. It was not until I bought a Cox PT-19 trainer and developed a slow-go, staged training method that I finally learned to properly fly a control line airplane

Aeronca C-3 Kit
by Sterling Models

Aeronca C-3  Kit by Sterling Models - Airplanes and RocketsI remember as a kid in Mayo, Maryland, tying a string to the nose of my Sterling Models Aeronca C-3 model and towing it behind my Huffy bicycle, up and down the street in front of my house. It would weave and dodge back in forth in a sort of gyrating motion a few feet off the ground and then settle into a fairly decent landing. Assuming the Aeronca C-3 met the same ultimate demise as most of my models of the era, it probably succumbed to an airframe failure after early success fed the human desire to go higher and faster than the last time. One thing that stands out in my mind about the Aeronca was that it was one of the most complex models I had attempted to date - especially with building the wing support assembly on top and adding all the flying wires

Borrowed "Bucks" for
College Years

Borrowed Bucks" for College Years, September 1954 Air Trails - Airplanes and RocketsIf you are in college now or contemplating such a thing, it is probably hard to imagine a time when people fretted over the extravagant costs of obtaining a degree when a full-time semester at State U. ran as much as $200-300. The entire school scholarship fund, to be doled out to hundreds of hopeful applicants, totaled a few tens of thousands of dollars for state schools and half a million for a place like Princeton. A four-year degree might have set you back $4,000-5,000 including books. Nowadays, of course, freshman courses can run $200-300 per credit hour and Princeton costs north of $50,000 per year. The cost of a college education has risen over the years, almost every year, at a rate much greater than inflation. That

Klockit Wall Clock PL-20

Clockit Wall Clock PL-20 - Airplanes and RocketsWhile visiting Melanie's sister and her husband recently, they asked me to take the wall clock I made for them in 1983 back home with me for repair. A little investigation showed that the culprit was sweep second hand rubbing against the door glass for part of its rotation. After seeing it, I remembered needing to insert a shim on the back of the wood panel that the clock movement mounted to because the shaft was so long. Over time the thick rubber washer that came with the movement compressed enough to cause the interference. Adding another thin washer has remedied the situation with enough room to spare for another 30 years of trouble-free timekeeping

McWatts Comic Strip

McWatts Comic Strip, December 1956 Popular Electronics - RF CafeMcWatts was an electronics-themed comic that appeared in Popular Electronics back in the 1950s. Artist Carl Kohler's main character is a stereotypical Joe Sixpack (actually a Joe McWatts)electronics hobbyist who dreams up unique ways to deal with situations. This edition shows McWatts in a scenario where, presciently enough, he experiences having his radio controlled airplane treated to what modern day 'drone' pilots are experiencing on a more and more frequent basis - being shot down. In this case the hostile fire came from some kids with slingshots. Fast-forward to 2015 and we are now seeing reports of people using shotguns and rifles to down the privacy-invading craft being piloted by unqualified pranksters. Back in the McWatts era, getting 'shot down' was much more likely

Simple Dual Proportional
R/C System

Simple Dual Proportional R/C System, September 1956 Popular Electronics - Airplanes and RocketsIf you are relatively new to radio control (R/C) operation, whether for the latest 'drone' craze (technically multi-rotor aircraft), model cars, model boats, helicopters, or airplanes - or even robots, then you might be interested in discovering a little about the systems which pioneers in the sport had to work with. In the mid 1950s when this article appeared in Popular Electronics magazine, multi-rotors and helicopters were not even in the list of model types. As with radios and television sets, before the convenience and performance increase brought about by the advent of solid state components, R/C modelers struggled with vacuum tube equipment, too. If you are old enough to remember needing to re-tune your radio or TV occasionally due to

Enterprise-E Control Line
Stunt Model Maiden Flight

Enterprise-E Control Line Stunt Model - Airplanes and RocketsMy Enterprise-E finally had its maiden flight today, and all went very well. The electric power system seems appropriately fitted and provides way more than enough thrust. There is a lot of control surface throw available so the first flight was a bit shaky for the first few times around the circle, but the craft settled down after I got accustomed to it. Three flights were put in and I brought her home unscathed - that's success in anyone's book! A short video is posted on the web page

National Model Meet Under Way

National Model Meet Under Way, November 1948 Air Trails - Airplanes and RocketsOnce again, I think about all the young lads and men I see in these middle of the last century articles and wonder whether their lives went well and are they still around today, engaged in aeromodeling? Most probably have kids and grandkids who would love to run across one of these photos that probably nobody in the family even knows exists. What about the models, too? How many are sitting in an attic or garage somewhere, and will be discarded by disinterested kin or estate buyers? No doubt many (not just those shown here) met their demise while being flown, transported to or from a flying field, in a house fire, during a flood, in a tornado or hurricane

Air Progress: The Bristol Story

Air Progress: The Bristol Story, November 1948 Air Trails - Airplanes and RocketsThe Bristol Aircraft company was one of Britain's first commercial and military airplane manufacturing firms. Less than a decade after the Wright Brothers made their successful flight, the entire civilized world was scurrying to develop airplanes and vie for the lead position. World War I broke out in Europe 1914, which created a huge demand for aerial fighting platforms. Sir George White's company was willing and able to do so. Many famous designs came from his factory, including the Bristol Scout and Bristol Bulldog. Scarcely a major scale model contest is held where you do not find at least one of Bristol's designs. This two-page spread from a 1948 edition of Air Trails gives some history on 20 

R/C Reliability:
Escapements and Batteries

R/C Reliability Escapements and Batteries, April 1955 Popular Electronics - Airplanes and RocketsBill Winter is one of the best-known names in the aeromodeling realm since he has been around writing columns on modeling events, construction, flying, and product features, serving as editors of modeling magazines, and participating in modeling events throughout the country since the middle of the last century. He went above and beyond the call of duty in his attempt to introduce people to the model aircraft and model rocketry hobbies. This particular article is one of a handful Bill wrote for Popular Electronics magazine in the 1950s and 1960s. An amazing transformation has occurred in the radio-control aspect in that when this article was published, participation required knowledge of electronics, a larger hobby budget than your average modeler, and a willingness to be continually battling problems

Maiden Flight of My
105% Airtronics Aquila Sailplane

Kirt Blatenberger with 105% Airtronics Aquila Sailplane - Airplanes and RocketsBack in the late 1970s I built an Aquila from plans that appeared in RC Modeler magazine, then I built another Aquila in the early 1980s from a kit. Both are long gone. About 6 months ago while waxing nostalgic about the Aquila, I decided to build another, but this time I had the plans enlarged to 105% to get the wingspan over 100" while not having to change airframe component sizes. This version has a .10 size electric motor for power. I wanted to determine the amount of down-thrust needed to prevent a nose-high climb prior to final nose shaping and canopy installation. For this maiden flight, there was about 8 degrees, which was not enough. It really needs about 12 degrees at full power. As you can see from the video, the flight went flawlessly. It was very gusty so I only put in one flight. The wing spoilers work like a charm

C/L Taper Wing Waco
Article & Plans

Taper Wing Waco Article & Plans, November 1953 Air Trails - Airplanes and RocketsIt would be difficult to find a more perfect aerobatic scale biplane for control line flying than the Waco Taper Wing (WTW). Its solid frame, near-zero dihedral in both wings, and nearly symmetrical airfoil is just what the serious stunt flyer needs. Construction is standard built-up stick and sheet balsa framing members and Silkspan and dope covering. Today, you might choose to cover the Taper Wing Waco with Monokote, or even Coverite 21st Century Fabric if you want an authentic fabric look that is still iron-on. Originally designed for a .30-size glow engine, the model could easily be converted to electric power

Hughes Aircraft XF-11 (F-11)

(X)F-11, November 1948 Air Trails - Airplanes and RocketsAlthough it looks a lot like the Lockheed P-38 Lightning, Hughes Aircraft's F-11 was designed to be an aerial photo-reconnaissance platform during World War II, and was much larger than the P-38. Eccentric millionaire and accomplished aviator Howard Hughes served as the test pilot for the XF-11 prototype, which ended up crashing into a couple houses just outside the airport. Only two were ever built. Interestingly, somewhere I have an article in either an American Modeler or another Air Trails magazine what tells the tale of pilot who during World War II used a specially equipped P-38 to take low level, high speed flight photographs of German troop movements along the western side of the English Channel

Pilotless Plane Run by Radio

Pilotless Plane Run by Radio, May 1946 Radio News - Airplanes and RocketsNews reports are full of features about the wave of radio controlled (R/C) 'drones' terrorizing citizens with their often inexperienced pilots navigating their camera-laden craft to peer into bedroom windows, obtain 'birds-eye' views of sporting events, and to be a general pain in the posterior to people trying to enjoy their right to privacy and safety (except, of course, unless it is the Government choosing to violate them). Incredible advances in radio, navigation, and sensor systems has facilitated a wide variety of very affordable multirotor (the correct term, not 'drone') aircraft that can literally fly themselves. For under $500 you can buy a GPS-guided multirotor that can be programmed to fly to one or more waypoints and return to the launch location, with range and flight duration limited

Poll: What Type of
Aeromodeling Do You Prefer?

Official Airplanes and Rockets Website Poll
Radio Control:
Control Line:
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Control Line Capers

Wild Bill Netzeband's Control Line Capers, from September/October 1963 American Modeler Magazine - Airplanes and RocketsHarold Netzenband hit a home run with this month's "Control Line Capers" column in the September / October 1963 edition of American Modeler. It is chock full of good stuff ranging from some incredible multi-engined models (a B-17 Flying Fortress, a P-38 Lightning, and a Grummann S2F-1 Tracker) to sleek control line stunt jobs (Elasic's Impala and Harold Price's retractable landing gear Valkyrie). He also covers a lot of newly introduced modeling accessories

Eddie Elasick's AMA Stunter

Eddie Elasick's AMA Stunter "Impala", from September/October 1963 American Modeler Magazine - Airplanes and RocketsEddie Elasick was all the rage in Junior control line stunt circles (pun intended) in the early 1960s. His Impala stunter design won him national fame, and the model is still commonly built and flown in Old Time Stunt contests across the country. The 'triple-tail' design and sleek lines that included wheel pants made it stand out amongst competitors of its day. The Impala has a 54" wingspan and originally used a Fox .35 Stunt engine, with a 3.5-oz. fuel tank. Flying weight was around 45 ounces

The Turbine Jet Engine

Air Progress: The Jet Engine, July 1951 Air Trails - Airplanes and RocketsTurbine jet engines were still a relatively new invention - at least for commercial airplanes - in 1951. The military was already using them for fighters, but remember that it wasn't until the end of World War II that jet airplanes were seen in the skies, so we're only talking about half a decade of progress. Mr. Douglas Rolfe produced this very finely detailed cross-sectional drawing of a turbine jet engine. It must have taken quite a while to add so much information. Even using modern CAD software would require a lot of time to generate such a drawing. The nice thing about CAD is that if you make a mistake or change something, or maybe want to move part of the drawing to another location on the page, it is a simple

Balsa Density vs. Weight

Balsa density-weight charts by Al and Rod Clark - Airplanes and RocketsAl and Rod Clark created a very nice set of graphs that plot balsa density versus weight for wide variety of balsa sheet thickness, width, and length combinations. There is also a brief discussion on balsa grain (A, B, and C) and how it affects the wood's characteristics. It is hosted on the AMA's website. I also have a page on the subject of balsa wood properties that was derived from a 1970's era Sig Manufacturing catalog, and there is also a nice article on balsa tree foresting and harvesting.

How to add Radio Controls
to Your Scale Model Auto

How to add Radio Controls to Your Scale Model Auto, October 1962 American Modeler - Airplanes and RocketsEver since radio control systems have been available commercially, modelers have gone to sometimes extreme lengths to retrofit them into items not intended necessarily for R/C. GI Joes have been given servo-controlled arms to maneuver an R/C released parachute after being dropped from an R/C airplane or helicopter. Stuffed animals and dolls have been fitted with motors and controls to make them walk and move their arms. Cheap Styrofoam free flight gliders from the toy department of Walmart have had 2- or 3-channel R/C airborne systems installed to turn the $10 models into respectable thermaling machines. You can buy micro R/C systems and motor propulsion for installing on paper airplanes nowadays. This article reports on an effort to convert free running model cars into

Beyond the "Barrier"

Beyond the Sound "Barrier", November 1948 Air Trails - Airplanes and Rockets"On October 14, 1947, the Bell X-1 became the first airplane to fly faster than the speed of sound. Piloted by U.S. Air Force Capt. Charles E. "Chuck" Yeager, the X-1 reached a speed of 700 miles per hour, Mach 1.06, at an altitude of 43,000 feet." This article appeared in Air Trails a year later in order to help introduce and explain supersonic flight to the modeling public. One of the most unanticipated aspect of supersonic flight was the reversal of aileron control in the transition region. Aerodynamists quickly figured out what was happening and made design alterations to remedy the problem. BTW, 'Muroc' mentioned here is Muroc Air Force Base, which was later

Aerial Horse-Shoe Game
A Study in Aerodynamics

Aerial Horse-Shoe Game: A Study in Aerodynamics, September 1954 Air Trails - Airplanes and Rockets)Boomerangs and kites are rare sights these days. Both devices require a fair amount of real estate to use, and even in the suburbs, that kind of space is getting harder and harder to find. It is amazing to watch television shows and movies from the black and white era and notice how relatively unpopulated cities and towns were compared to today. While watching an early episode of The Beverly Hillbillies the other day, I was struck by how open the Pacific coastline was in the early 1960s, and how nowadays it seems every foot of it is occupied by a house. Even the foothills a ways back from the coast were barren. Nevertheless, it is still possible to buy really nice kites and boomerangs. Many have been

Ornithopter Flapper

Ornithopter Flapper Article & Plans, October 1962 American Modeler - Airplanes and RocketsWebsite visitor Bob B. wrote to ask that I scan and post this "Ornithopter Flapper" from the October 1962 version of American Modeler. There was no accompanying construction article, but it looks pretty simple. Based on the statement that the included plans are half-size, the wingspan works out to about 4-7/8". The AMA Plans Service does offer an ornithopter with a 16" wingspan, so that is not this one. If you want a larger ornithopter, $4 isn't much to pay for a bona fide copy. I always advocate purchasing plans from the AMA Plans Service as a means of supporting the organization

Stunt Rocket Article & Plans

Stunt Rocket Article & Plans, July 1951 Air Trails - Airplanes and RocketsWalter Musciano is a very familiar name to modelers who cut their teeth on on control line model airplanes back in the middle of the last century. His flying hobby began in the 1930s are a Brooklyn, New York, schoolboy. He won his first contest in 1936. Since that time, Mr. Musciano has designed scores of model airplanes and won numerous contests. This article from the July 1951 edition of Air Trails covers the building of his famous Stunt Rocket. It was a breakthrough design due to its large size and huge, powerful ignition engine. AMA Plans Service still sells the plans

15th National Soaring Contest

15th National Soaring Contest, November 1948 Air Trails - Airplanes and RocketsAs with most other forms of aircraft technology the world of gliders has changed significantly in the last half century. The relatively high drag fuselages and low aspect ratio wings, and the wood frame with fabric covering used on most of the sailplanes at the 15th National Soaring Contest is definitely old school compared to today's sleek foam, fiberglass, and carbon fiber airframes that have been computer optimized for drag reduction, speed, and lift generation. Dr. Paul MacReady and son Paul, Jr. were on the scene way back then, and then again in the 20th National Soaring Contest in November 1953 Air Trails and the 21st National Soaring Contest as

AMA Receives Bill Northrop's
Plans Service Inventory

Academy of Model Aeronautics Receives Bill Northrop's Plans Service Inventory - Airplanes and RocketsAMA Plans Service has been bestowed the entire inventory of Bill Northrop's Plans Service, according to a story in the February 2015 edition of Model Aviation. Stretching back to Model Builder magazine's publication era (1971 through 1991), AMA Hall of Famer Bill Northrop amassed a collection of more than 800 plans, including free flight, radio control, and control line airplanes as well as a few boats. Bill's wife and business partner, Anita, was instrumental in making arrangements for the transfer, so thanks to her. Many sources of 'free' versions of plans are available on the Internet while legitimate copies can still be purchased from the copyright owners. The versions I post here on Airplanes and Rockets are meant to be just detailed enough to determine whether you want to purchase

Cosmic Radio Signals
from Sun and Stars

Cosmic Radio Signals from Sun and Stars, March 1948 Radio Craft - Airplanes and RocketsNational defense needs have pushed back the frontiers of science and technology since time immemorial. Mechanics, chemistry, medicine, mathematics, psychology, astronomy, electricity, and as of the late nineteenth century, electronics. Astronomy was useful as a navigational tool and required a very sophisticated knowledge of geometry and algebra to make it accessible to seafaring men, cartographers, and land surveyors. Since the early 1900s, radio astronomy has played a huge role in the advancement of super-sensitive receiver designs. Most people think of information arriving to them in two or maybe three forms: sound, visible light, and some (but not many) even consider radio waves. As over-the-air AM and FM radio broadcasts die out, even fewer people are aware of radio

Enterprise-E Project
by Dave Nyce

Enterprise-E Control Line Stunt Model by Dave Nyce - Airplanes and RocketsDave Nyce, of North Carolina, sent me these photos of his Enterprise-E project. I really like how he integrated the top portion of the motor cowl into the fuselage top hatch to facilitate servicing the motor if necessary. Unlike with a nitro engine that typically mounts with bolts perpendicular to the thrust line so access from the fuselage side is possible, with electric motors the mounting bolts are accessed from the front. Enclosing the motor with a cowl as shown on the plans would make bolt access difficult at best and impossible at worst. Dave plans to use Monokote ion the wings and paint elsewhere. Based on the framework quality, the final product is bound to be outstanding.

Infographic: The Greatest
Turning Points in Aviation

Infographic: The Greatest Turning Points in Aviation (BBC) - Airplanes and RocketsInfographics are a big thing (literally) in the business and science world. Well-done infographics typically have the form of a high aspect ratio drawing that presents a detailed timeline or process flow of events or concepts. The progress can run top to bottom or bottom to top, depending on the creator's intentions. This particular infographic, produced by the BBC's 'Great Turning Points' series, outlines the major milestones in development of flying machines beginning with the Wright Flyer in 1903 and progressing through both manned and unmanned airplanes up through the U.S. Air Force's X-47B in 2014. Four categories of 'milestone moments' are included: pioneering designs, wings of war, record breakers, and globe shrinkers. It would make a nice poster for the wall of your hobby area or, if you're one