In order to provide for a reasonable homepage loading time, it is impractical to just keep adding items to the top of the stack and keep all the old stuff there too. Therefore, I have created these Airplanes and Rockets Homepage Archives to maintain a historical snapshot of everything once on the homepage. Unfortunately, I did not think to keep a record until around Fall of 2009; I had just been deleting items from the bottom of the stack. No more, though. Hence forth, if you recall seeing something on the homepage but it is no longer there, please check out these archive pages. I also keep an archive of all the modeling news additions:
Homepage Additions Archive:
Modeling News Archive:
Hi's Radio Mill Proves Potent Yet Docile .35Hi Johnson was a well-known designer and manufacturer of model airplane engines in the middle of the last century. His series of throttled engines was widely used in the early years of radio control. A lot of research went into producing the enges to produce long lifetime, easy starting, and consistency of operation. The Johnson 35 R/C, which is the subject of this article, was one of the first to used dual ball bearings on the crankshaft, contributing mightly to the accomplishment of the aforementioned goals. The state of the art for all types of model flying had advanced to where pilots could expect their models...
Jonah's Plane 1938 Boys' LifeOld seafarers' superstitions wore on long past the days when sailors believed their ship might run over the edge of the Earth. They carried over into maritime services well into the 20th century, and probably to some extent into the 21st century. It was common to blame a long string of bad luck on one poor sap whose appearance on the scene just happened to coincide with the supposed curse. He was called a "Jonah," after the Biblical character whose presence on a fishing boat caused a constant run of bad weather until the crew finally tossed him overboard where the leviathan of the deep swallowed him. In this story from a 1938 edition of Boys' Life, a particular seaplane suffered problem after problem, like water in the gas tank causing dead stick landings on rough seas, so the pilots and mechanics referred to it as "Jonah's plane." As with many stories of the era, this one centers around airplanes and ships.
Movies of the Month 1938 Boys' LifeBarely three decades after Wilbur and Orville Wright made the first flight where their eponymous Flyer took off and landed under its own power, aeroplanes were still a mystery to most of the public. Some probably still thought it was witchcraft or some other evil influence holding man and craft aloft. Movies of the era were filled with airplanes and the daring young men who piloted them for war, for recreation, and for profit. This report from a 1938 edition of Boys' Life is evidence of just how ubiquitous flying machines were in films. Big-name actors like Lionel Barrymore, Basil Rathbone, Fred Astaire, and Ginger Rogers added to the excitement...
Tin Goose - She Led the Golden AgeI had no idea that there were multiple versions of the Ford Trimotor. This article from an 1962 edition of American Modeler provides a fairly in-depth look at the history of the airplane. If you follow politics at all, you know that Halliburton is a name that became a household word when George Bush chose Dick Cheney as his vice president. According to author Joe Christy, SAFE-way airline, which operated Ford Trimotors, was started by Oklahoma oilman Erle Halliburton, and was sold to TWA (Trans World Airline) in 1931. In an incredible stroke of good fortune, Melanie and I were able to take a ride in a Ford Trimotor in the summer of 2013, flying out of Erie International Airport.
U.S. Air Force vs. Airplane ModelerIf you appreciate airplane related humor, then you will want to check out this collection that appeared in the April 1957 edition of American Modeler. In the not too distant future, I predict that similar scenarios will actually occur as hapless operators of radio controlled drones fly into restricted airspace that military and law enforcement agencies are responsible for monitoring and defending.
United States Rubber Company AdvertisementUnited States Rubber Company was one of the original 12 companies used to calculate the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) for the stock market on Wall Street. In addition to manufacturing automobile and airplane tires, it also supplied the free flight model world with T-56 rubber for powering. T-56, along with tan rubber from Pirelli, Dunlop, was considered the cream of the crop back in the middle and late 20th century. Many old timers still lament of its eventual disappearance from the market and treasure their hordes of the stuff from days of yore.
Rason "Warrior" X-3Website visitor Sam B. wrote asking that I scan and post this article on the Ranson "Warrior" X-3 homebuilt airplane that appeared in the November 1957 edition of American Modeler. He is considering building a control line version of it. Unfortunately, only a 3-view drawing of the craft appear in the magazine, but there are also a couple photos (along with the color Cover Photo) that should help with drawing plans. A Web search turned up only one example of a full-size Rason Warrior X-3 (N1528Y). The was a link to a rubber-powered free flight model version, but the links are broken. There is a plans listing for a 13" Ranson Warrior X-3 in the AMA Plans Service's list.
A Wind Tunnel You Can Make and OperateToday, computer software has replaced much of the simulation and experimentation that used to be the sole domain of wind and smoke tunnels. The mathematical equations are so complex for high resolution, 3-dimensional calculations that very powerful computers are required to run even relatively simple simulations. While there are programs that can be purchased for about $1,000 that do a good job for uncomplicated shapes, large, university and corporation scale computers are needed for "serious" work like designing commercial and military aircraft, passenger cars, competition sailboats, and many other applications. Even so, NASA, the ESA, and other large organizations still operate tunnels for testing prototypes that have emerged from simulations. This article provides plans and instructions for...
How NOT to Retrieve a Model!Every month in Model Aviation, the AMA's monthly publication, there is a "Safety" column that reports on model-related accidents and issues like not charging Li-Po batteries in appropriate containers, not smoking around glow fuel and gasoline, not flipping your propeller with a bare finger, etc. Many moons ago the big safety concern was not flying control line models too near to high voltage power lines. This photo from the April 1967 edition of American Modeler shows some guy attempting to retrieve a radio control model from its landing spot atop a set of telegraph wires. He is standing on a barbed wire fence using a wooden pole to prod it off the lines. The captions asks, "Who knows line voltage?" I looked it up. Typical telegraph line voltages ran from 500 to 1,200 volts according to the 1922 Railway Signaling and Communications...
Dope CanAmerican Modeler published stories on many forms of modeling including airplanes, cars, boats, and rockets. A lot of attention was paid to teenagers in order to encourage a pursuit of careers in engineering and science. In case you don't know, the U.S. Navy used to sponsor the AMA Nationals specifically to attract young modelers into the service. This 1957 edition reports on the activities of James M. Blackmon, Jr., who was the nation's youngest rocket builder to receive national recognition by the American Rocket Society. He built in his basement a 6' tall liquid-fueled rocket model. Fortunately for him, his parents and the CAA (now the FAA) put the kibosh on the flight testing before a potential hazard could emerge. Lots of kids lost fingers and eyes to such experimentation prior to Estes introducing solid propellant rocket motors. Nevertheless, Jim's efforts attracted...
once again for helping to make AirplanesAndRockets a success. I truly appreciate the support of advertisers and visitors.
Your inputs are always welcome.
are a few of my favorite
Christmas music videos.
They include an eclectic mix of
(new for 2013), the Trans-Siberian Orchestra, an unlikely duet sung by Bing Crosby
Bowie, and Casting Crowns. Watching the instruments being played really enhances the effect of the song.
"Snoopy" R/C Sport Aerobatic ModelWebsite visitor Mike L. wrote to ask that I scan and post this "Snoopy" article that appeared in the December 1972 edition of American Aircraft Modeler. Mike liked the Snoopy so much that back in the 1970s he built a couple of them. Now, 40-some years later, the bug has bitten again and it's time to build another. Snoopy is a 4-channel R/C sport aerobatic trainer model with a 48" wingspan, using a .15 to .35 engine. It is all balsa and plywood construction. Mike's original Snoopys were powered by a Veco .19 and used a Kraft Sport 5 radio for guidance.
Gemini VII Launch Announcement in TV GuideWhile looking for the edition of TV Guide that published the first airing of "A Charlie Brown Christmas," I noticed that the time period coincided with the launching of the Gemini VII spacecraft. In a stroke of good fortune, it indeed included an announcement that regularly scheduled programming would be preempted as necessary to provide live coverage of the launch, to give timely updates, and to coverage the splashdown in the Atlantic Ocean.
Wombat Boost Glider Plans & Assembly InstructionWhile doing research on rocket-powered gliders and boost-glide rockets, I ran across the Wombat rocket-boost glider design and tried to find either a source for buying a kit or for buying the plans. Neither seem to be available - at least not for me. When I posted a photo of David Wagner's Wombat, I requested knowledge of a source for plans and someone send me an old scanned set. I cleaned them up and posted them here. If you are the copyright owner and do not wish to have them posted, please let me know and I will remove them posthaste.
Crossword Puzzle December 4, 1965 TV GuideTV Guide crossword puzzles were always my mother's favorite Sunday evening pastime. It's not that she couldn't handle the New York Times' notoriously challenging crossword, it's just that The Evening Capital newspaper didn't have a Sunday edition so we didn't get the puzzle. My father worked as the classified advertising manager at The Evening Capital so we received a free subscription to the paper. This particular crossword puzzle appeared in the edition of TV Guide that featured the first-ever airing of "A Charlie Brown Christmas" which I bought on eBay, so I figured I might as well scan and post it. Enjoy!
"A Charlie Brown
1st Aired December 9, 1965
Famous "Inverted Jenny" Postage Stamp Re-Issued!Having been an amateur philatelist for more than 40 years, I am quite familiar with the very valuable "Inverted Jenny" misprint stamp that occurred during the initial printing of America's first Air Mail stamp in 1918. Supposedly only one sheet of 100 stamps got past the inspectors before the error was caught; inversions were common in the day for multi-colored stamps. The blue Curtiss JN-4 Jenny biplane, one of the most commonly used airmail planes, was printed upside down as the result of the first red printing sheet being fed backwards into the printing machine. To date the highest price paid for a single mint-condition, never-hinged example is...
Sylph and Wombat Rocket-Powered GlidersWebsite visitor David Wagner, of Santa Fe, New Mexico, was kind enough to send me photos of his two very fine rocket-powered gliders - the Sylph and the Wombat. He is also in the process building a Cheechako rocket glider based on an article from the February 1972 edition of American Aircraft Modeler. Hopefully, David will also send a photo of his Cheechako when it is ready.
"Thing" Lifting Body GliderWebsite visitor H.G.F., of Oshkosh, wrote to request that I scan and post the construction article for the "Thing" lifting body glider. "Thing" is a small 3-D polygonally shaped craft made from sheet balsa that is 7-1/4" long, 3-1/8" wide, and 3-3/8" high with a glob of modeling clay on the nose for balance. I imagine it could be scaled up a bit if you want something bigger. "Thing" was designed in the early 1970s at about the time lifting bodies were a big deal. Recall (if you were around then) that it was the era of astronaut Steven Austin and the Six Million Dollar Man television show.
Hobby Hinter for a Very Merry ChristmasIf you've ever been a kid - or are one now - then you know there is no such thing as getting too early of a start in priming your parents for Christmas... not for what they want, of course, but for what you want. In fact, if you haven't begun dropping hints by Thanksgiving, then you really need some remedial training in how to handle the season. Here I offer some assistance. Recall how in A Christmas Story, Ralph "Ralphie" Parker exhibited a manic desire for an "official Red Ryder carbon action 200-shot Range model air rifle with a compass in the stock, and this thing which tells time." His scheme was to place copies of the Red Ryder advertisement from Boys' Life into his mother's and father's magazines so that they would see it. A more direct - and probably more effective - method is to print out this "Hobby Hinter" that appeared in the December 1954 edition of Air Trails Hobbies for Young Men. Good luck!
Winning R/C Racer "Gold Rush III"Gold Rush III is an R/C pylon racer that was ahead of its time - and its competition - in 1962. Virtually none of the features of the plane can be found in today's pylon racers, though, except maybe the fiberglass fuselage. The homemade retractable landing gear (or any type of retracts for that matter) is the most notable exception. Full building instructions are featured on the plans. AMA rules at the time called for a whopping 766 sq. in. of wing area with a .19 size engine. If you are looking to build a vintage model that probably flies pretty well both for speed and aerobatics characteristics using a modern lightweight radio and much more powerful engine (or electric motor), then the Gold Rush III would be worth considering.
Harold deBolt's Low-Wing Crusader - Article & PlansAn unsigned e-mail arrived requesting that I scan and post this construction article for Harold deBolt's Crusader from the August 1959 edition of American Modeler. I offer the service free of charge for anyone that writes, provided I already have the magazine. There have even been a couple cases where I bought editions on eBay after people asked for them in order to be able to post the articles. I'll never understand people who don't have the courtesy of signing an e-mail when asking for a favor (this isn't the first time)... and no excuses about being old and not knowing how to use the computer - would you do the same thing with hand-written letters? Then again, maybe he hit the Send button accidently before finishing.
1955 American "NATS" Biggest Ever!Every time I read stories in these old model airplane magazines, especially those reporting on contests, I wonder where are all the great models that were represented in them? On a couple occasions people have written to let me know where they have gone, as was the case recently with USAF TSgt. Gordon Ford's incredible collection of giant control line scale, multi-engined flying models. A couple years ago a relative of a contestant (the now husband of a then teenage girl rocketeer, amazingly) wrote in response to an article I published about a model rocket contest in Mankato, Minnesota. Hopefully, someone who knows someone who is pictured here in this coverage of the 1955 AMA Nationals will...
Important Facts About Balsa WoodBalsa wood was a special thing to me as a kid. To me, it represented the essence of model airplanes and model rockets. At the time - the 1960s and 70s - plastic and foam as model components were considered a sign of cheapness, low quality, amateurishness. It was like having "Made in Japan" stamped on it. Now, of course, it's a different world where Japan is renowned for some of the highest quality electronics and cars and the plastic and foam ARFs represent some of the highest-performing aircraft at the flying field. I have owned a few of those foamies, but still, at least for my tastes, nothing beats the look, feel and aroma of balsa. Somehow the tell-tale surface texture of foam, even with a nice paint job, ruins the authenticity of an otherwise beautifully factory-finished scale F4-U Corsair or P-38 Lightning. Sorry, that's just the way it is...
1917 Morane-Saulnier AI (M.S. 29) 4-ViewWebsite visitor Rick P. requested that I electronically scan and post this drawing of the 1917 Morane-Saulnier AI (M.S. 29) biplane that appeared in the April 1969 edition American Aircraft Modeler magazine. You might be able to scale up this image below if a suitable set of plans is not available. This full-color 4-view for the 1917 Morane-Saulnier AI were drawn by prolific artist and draftsman Mr. Björn Karlström.
Sunday Fun Article & PlansWebsite visitor Massimo D. wrote to wrote to ask that I scan and post this article for the "Sunday Flyer," an .020-powered, stick-framed glider with a "V" tail. What made this model unique was that it was a single-channel job with an escapement that drove both halves of the "V" tail. Mr. D. did not say what type of radio he plans to use in his Sunday Flyer, but I assume it will probably be two proportional channels with nano type servos. I wouldn't be surprised, either, if it ended up being powered by a brushless motor.
Ford Tri-Motor Model 5-AT-C Line DrawingsWilliam A. Wylam has created some amazingly detailed scale aircraft line drawings for Model Airplane News. These line drawings of the Ford Tri-Motor from the May 1959 edition of Model Airplane News is all you need to see to understand just how good he was. Mr. Wylam, per his biography, holds bachelor's degrees in biology and electrical and mechanical engineering. He worked at Bell Labs and for numerous military and government agencies, and owns more than 1,500 copyrights and 17 patents. The world is definitely a better place for William A. Wylan's existence.
Sketchbook - Hints & KinksThis Sketchbook was scanned from the June 1962 American Modeler magazine, page 44. Most building tips are timeless. Even in this era of ready-to-fly (RTF), almost-ready-to-fly (ARF), bind-n-fly (BNF), etc., there are still many modelers who build their own aircraft. Nearly all top tier competition fliers build their own models, as do aficionados of vintage (aka old-timer) models. Some guys just would rather build than buy a pre-build airplane, whether from a kit or from plans.
Engine Roundup 1955 Air TrailsFrom the 1955 Annual edition of Air Trails: "Here is one of the most informative collections to date of engine drawings and data. The information in the chart has been furnished to us by the manufacturer. Each engine 3-view is full size and is keyed by a number to the chart. You are invited to test your skill by identifying these motors before checking chart." A total of 68 vintage engines are included from Allyn, Atwood, Cameron, Cheminol, Cox, Forster, Fox, Henry, Herkimer, Holland, K&B, and McCoy include nitro and diesel power for aircraft, cars, and boats. I measured one engine on each page and indicated its full-scale size so you can use it to scale any of the others on the page.
Bean Hill Flyers Nov/Dec 2013 NewsletterThe Bean Hill Flyers club is Erie, Pennsylvania's, only organized control line flying group. It operates under sanction of the Academy of Model Aeronautics (AMA), charter #4673. Two main flying sites are maintained, one in Albion, PA, and the other in Millcreek, just west of the Erie city line. If you are looking for plastic scale model airplanes, you will want to look at the huge list of 21 kits from Dave Evar - prices range from $2 to $10.
American Control Line Championships (part 2)This is part two of the coverage of the American control Line Championships that began in the January 1962 edition of American Modeler. Part one covered mainly control line stunt and combat. Part two covers team racing and speed, carrier, jets, and scale. I was amazed to read about how many large scale jobs suffered structural failures varying in nature from wings breaking to landing gear collapsing. The multi-engine models had enormous amounts of trouble getting everything working properly. Believe it or not, one top speed contestant had his winning engine stole out of his model while it was sitting unattended in the flight box. There have always been scumbags.
Wild Bill Netzeband's Control Line CapersThere are probably precious few people who bother to mix their own fuels anymore, especially since there are so many commercial brews available, and contest fuels are often prescribed by well-established rules. Such was not always the case. Local hobby shops for most people carried only a couple choices (often still the case), and mail order for fuel was not always an option (which it is now for 4 gallons or more). To assist those who wanted a more precise, predictable, and repeatable method for mixing two or more fuel types, Wild Bill Netzeband devised a fuel mixing nomograph to simplify the task without having to resort to algebraic ratio formulas. As a bonus, Ken Bergen's Ilyushin IL-10 profile control line stunter plans for .29 to .35 engines are included.
Hawker TempestHawker Hurricanes were the first line of defense for London against the onslaught of jet-powered German V-1 Buzz Bombs. Tempests were used as interceptors, fighter-bombers, escorts, for ground-attack duties against tanks and stationary targets. The plans are for a control line model scaled at one inch to the foot, which results in a 42" wingspan. Power is a McCoy .60, which would make for a very over-powered model. Ample room in the nose section easily accommodates a large powerplant in the model as it did in the full-size craft; in fact, the 24-cylinder Napier "Sabre" gave the Tempest a top cruise speed of 435 mph!
Topper C/L Model c.1960s
News Flash: Website visitor Roger J. wrote to tell the story of how he inherited an unfinished Topper control line model from his uncle. He was kind enough to send a photo of the airframe. Roger intends to complete the build based on the plans shown at the bottom of this page. Hopefully, he will send a photo of the completed model.
Guillow's AdvertisementThis particular advertisement by Guillow's is from page 7 of the March 1955 issue of Air Trails magazine. What caught my attention about the ad was the image of the Barnstormer control line model because it shows the lines exiting the right wing, meaning that it flies in a clockwise direction rather than the now-standard counterclockwise direction. Guillow's is still in operation today. Major Lester D. Gardner, founder of the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences (now the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics - AIAA), is honored in the ad. Major Gardner was a friend and confidant of the Wright Brothers and was responsible for the original Wright Flyer being preserved and displayed in the Smithsonian Institute's National Air and Space Museum...
Peanut Profile Pitts SpecialWebsite visitor Douglas G. wrote to ask that I scan and post this article from the September 1972 edition of American Aircraft Modeler. The Peanut-scale Pitts Special is another in the series of "For the Tenderfoot" models that feature easy to build and easy to fly designs meant to help beginners be successful. They would make excellent building subjects for modelers of any age even today and especially since nowadays the overwhelming number of models are pre-built, making the art of constructing an airplane and trimming it to fly a scarce commodity in the modeling world.
Ever Race Rats?Rat racing has been around for a long time. At some point the AMA contest rules changed to require only a profile type fuselage, and the maximum engine displacement 0.1525 cubic inches. There is also Slow Rat Racing which allows engines up to 0.2599 cubic inches. A 1/2A class is also specified for engines up to 0.0504 cubic inches, also with a profile fuselage. So, that means the Desert Rat evidently would not qualify for today's competitions since not only does it have a built-up fuselage, but it uses a 0.35 cubic inch engine. Maybe some day there will be a "classic" event for these early rat racer designs like there is for control line stunt.
Sketchbook - Construction,
Adjustment & Workshop Ideas
Contest CapersIf you're anything like me, you have an appreciation for the older comic strips. Getting the message being conveyed sometimes requires a knowledge of the events of the era, but for the most part the humor and/or satire comes through even when you assume it relates to current events. WWI and WWII timeframe comics, for instance, often alluded to the evils of Fascist governments overseas, while today they may be likened to the deeds of our own government. These Contest Caper comics from a 1955 edition of Air Trails are timeless.
Parnell PixieWebsite visitor Steve W. requested this short feature on the Parnell Pixie that appeared in the June 1959 edition of American Modeler. The Parnell Pixie was born in 1923 in response to a contest sponsored by the Daily Mail and the Duke of Sutherland designed to stimulate light aircraft development. Unfortunately, the article only has a short historical perspective and a 3-view line drawing. A Google search will turn up a few sources for plans for the Parnell Pixie.
Radio Control Fans' Most Popular Sport: Bug Hunting
Venusian Scout: An Out-of-This-World Job!A lot of people still believed in little green men from Mars and antennaed beings from Venus in the middle of the last century. For that matter, no planet or star was ruled out as host to intelligent life back in the day. Recall that it was only two decades earlier (1938) that Orson Welles created a panic with his Halloween broadcast of "The War of the Worlds." Some still believed that the "canali" recorded by astronomer Giovanni Schiaparelli were elaborate water distribution systems constructed by Martian citizens for distributing water. Venus, though mysteriously shrouded by clouds, surely hosted a civilization far superior to Earth's. This 1/2A control line model represents what was a common planform for unidentified flying objects based on "sightings." Most were either cigar or saucer shaped; Venusian Scout honors the latter...
Air Progress: Soviet Air Force Latter Day TypesThe March 1955 edition of Air Trails magazine, a mere decade past the end of World War II, did a short feature on 9 of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) Air Force's most important airplanes. Description and role for each model is brief. Line drawings are provided. You might want to add a little color with a graphics editor and print out the image to use as a poster.
"Clo-Clo" Terror in a TempestHere is a short story about French flying ace Pierre Clostermann who, after his country capitulated to the German Wehrmacht, went to England to fly for the Royal Air Force (RAF). His service for the French resistance was spent downing German Focke-Wulfs, Junkers, and Messerschmitts - 23 confirmed kills, 5 'probables,' and 30 aircraft damaged. His fabled aircraft was a Hawker Tempest, sister craft to the beautiful Hawker Hurricane. This control line model is designed for a .60 size engine. The article does provide detailed plans, but no description of the building or flying process.
Sketchbook Hints & Kinks from ModelersNecessity is the mother of invention, as the old saying goes. Back in the 1950s, invention was the necessity of modelers who were either on a tight budget, did not have access to the plethora of gadgets and devices available these days, or both. I really enjoy reading about some of the ideas devised by modelers for use on their airplanes. While doing something like splitting balsa sticks lengthwise to facilitate bending around tight curves - similar to laminating individual pieces, but on a local level - might seems obvious to a seasoned builder, there are always new people entering the realm or even old hands exploring a new area of aeromodeling who need to learn new methods. I actually had an idea printed once in Model Aviation where I suggested saving the small hypodermic dispensers (the ones with the skinny nozzles) from tooth whitening applicators for use in injecting epoxy into hinge slots.
40th AMA Nats: Control LineWebsite visitor Mike S. wrote to request a scan of one page from this article in American Aircraft Modeler that covered the 40th AMA Nationals contest sponsored by the U.S. Navy at the Glenview Naval Air Station. Mike knew a couple of the control line guys from the Cincinnati area whose photos appeared in the article. It must be nice to see someone you recognize (or even yourself) in a decades-old magazine. That is one of my reasons for making these articles available. If you would like a full copy of one of the magazine editions you remember from days of yore, whether it be American Modeler, American Aircraft Modeler, Flying Models, RC Modeler, Model Airplane News, etc., there is a good chance you can buy it on eBay for about $5...
"Topper": Best 4-Way AYSC Plane Article and PlansThe "Topper" is a general purpose control line stunter with a profile fuselage, a built-up wing, and power provided by a Fox .25 engine. Designed by John D'Ottavio, it originally went by the name of "Falcon," as evidenced by the lettering on the model flown by Eddie Elasic in the 1961 Air Youth State Competition (AYSC) held at Willow Grove NAS. He and John combined talents to come up with the design. It was awarded the honor of "Best 4-Way AYSC Plane." What are the 4 ways? I see endurance, speed, and stunt, but I'm not sure what the 4th way is - combat, maybe?